How to Compost in a Bin: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

how to compost in a bin

Hey there! Have you ever wondered what happens to all the food scraps and yard waste that you throw away? Well, let me introduce you to the wonderful world of composting in a bin! This environmentally-friendly practice not only reduces waste but also creates nutrient-rich soil that you can use to nourish your plants and garden. Think of a compost bin as a mini ecosystem right in your backyard. Just like a bustling city, the bin is filled with a diverse community of microorganisms, worms, and other critters that work together to break down your organic waste.

It’s like having your very own team of nature’s cleanup crew! Composting in a bin is an easy and convenient way to recycle your kitchen scraps and yard trimmings. All you need is a bin or container, some organic waste, and a little bit of time and patience. As you add materials to your bin, the beneficial microbes get to work breaking them down into nutrient-rich compost.

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Not only does composting help reduce the amount of waste that ends up in landfills, but it also helps to enrich the soil in your garden. The finished compost is a dark, crumbly, and nutrient-dense material that acts as a natural fertilizer. It improves soil structure, retains moisture, and provides essential nutrients for your plants to thrive.

So, whether you’re a seasoned gardener looking to take your soil to the next level or a beginner looking to reduce your waste and make a positive impact on the environment, composting in a bin is a great place to start. It’s a simple, hands-on way to connect with nature and contribute to a healthier planet. In this blog, we’ll explore the ins and outs of composting in a bin, from what materials you can compost to how to maintain and troubleshoot your bin.

Join us as we embark on this exciting journey and discover the magic of turning your kitchen scraps into black gold for your garden. Let’s dig in!

What is Composting?

If you’re looking to reduce waste and create nutrient-rich soil for your garden, composting in a bin is a great option! Composting is the process of breaking down organic materials, such as food scraps and yard waste, into a dark, crumbly substance called compost. This compost can then be added to your garden to help plants grow and thrive. To start composting in a bin, you’ll need a container that allows airflow and drainage, such as a large plastic bin or a wooden box with ventilation holes.

Place the bin in a convenient location, preferably in a shaded area to prevent it from drying out too quickly. Next, gather your compostable materials. These can include fruit and vegetable scraps, coffee grounds, eggshells, yard trimmings, and shredded leaves.

Avoid adding meat, dairy, or oily foods, as they can attract pests. Add these materials to the bin in layers, alternating between green (nitrogen-rich) and brown (carbon-rich) materials. This helps create a balanced compost pile.

Keep the compost moist but not soaked by adding water as needed. Turn the pile every few weeks with a garden fork or shovel to aerate it and speed up the decomposition process. In a few months to a year, depending on various factors such as temperature and the size of the pile, your compost will be ready to use in the garden.

Spread it around your plants as a natural fertilizer, and watch them flourish! So why wait? Start composting in a bin and do your part in reducing waste while creating nutrient-rich soil for your garden.

Definition of composting

composting, definition of composting, organic waste, green waste, decomposition, nutrients, compost pile, oxygen, microorganisms, natural process, fertilizer, environment, gardening, sustainable, reduce waste In simple terms, composting is the process of turning organic waste, such as green waste and food scraps, into nutrient-rich compost by allowing it to decompose. It is like nature’s way of recycling! When we throw away organic waste, it ends up in a landfill where it decomposes, producing harmful greenhouse gases. However, when we compost, we create a controlled environment where this decomposition occurs, but without the release of harmful gases.

Composting involves creating a compost pile or bin in which the organic waste is placed. To allow the waste to decompose, it needs the right balance of oxygen, moisture, and temperature. As the waste breaks down, microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi get to work, breaking down the organic materials into smaller and smaller pieces.

This process generates heat, which is why a well-maintained compost pile feels warm to the touch. As the organic matter decomposes, it turns into humus, a nutrient-rich material that resembles dark, crumbly soil. This humus can then be used as a fertilizer for plants in gardens, lawns, and agricultural fields.

By composting, we not only reduce the amount of waste that ends up in landfills, but we also create a valuable resource that helps nourish the environment and support sustainable gardening practices. It’s a win-win situation for both our planet and our gardens! So why not give composting a try and start turning your organic waste into nature’s black gold?

how to compost in a bin

Benefits of composting

Converting kitchen scraps and yard waste into nutrient-rich compost is a simple and cost-effective way to benefit both your garden and the environment. Composting is the natural process of decomposing organic matter, such as fruit peels, vegetable scraps, leaves, and grass clippings, into a dark, crumbly substance known as compost. This compost can then be added to the soil to improve its structure, fertility, and water-holding capacity.

Composting not only reduces the amount of waste going to landfills but also helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, composting can save you money by reducing the need for commercial fertilizers and potting soil. By composting, you are giving back to the earth in a sustainable and eco-friendly way, while also reaping the benefits of healthier plants and a more productive garden.

So why not start composting today and make a positive impact on the planet?

Choosing the Right Bin

When it comes to composting, choosing the right bin is an important step. There are several factors to consider when making this decision. First, think about the size of your composting area and how much waste you will be generating.

If you have limited space or only produce a small amount of waste, a smaller bin may be sufficient. On the other hand, if you have a large yard and produce a lot of food scraps and yard waste, a larger bin may be necessary. It’s also important to consider the type of material you want to compost.

Some bins are better suited for food scraps, while others are better for yard waste. Finally, think about convenience and ease of use. Look for a bin that is easy to access and has a lid that can be securely closed to keep out pests and prevent odors.

By taking these factors into consideration, you can choose the right bin for your composting needs and create nutrient-rich compost for your garden.

Types of composting bins

When it comes to composting, having the right bin can make all the difference. There are several types of composting bins to choose from, each with its own unique benefits and features. One popular option is the classic compost pile, which is simply a designated area of your yard where you can heap organic materials like food scraps, leaves, and grass clippings.

This is a great option if you have a large amount of organic waste and plenty of space. Another option is a compost tumbler, which is a container that you can easily rotate to mix and aerate the compost. This is a good choice if you have a smaller yard or if you want to speed up the composting process.

Worm bins are another option, which use worms to break down organic matter. This method is ideal for those with limited outdoor space, as worm bins can be kept indoors or on a balcony. Lastly, there are vermicomposting systems, which are similar to worm bins but on a larger scale.

These systems use worms to break down organic waste and produce nutrient-rich compost. Overall, choosing the right composting bin depends on your specific needs and preferences. Consider factors such as space, amount of organic waste, and desired composting speed when making your decision.

Considerations when choosing a bin

Choosing the right bin for your needs goes beyond simply finding a container that can hold your waste. It’s important to consider factors such as size, material, and functionality. Firstly, think about the size of the bin you need.

Do you generate a large amount of waste on a daily basis, or do you only produce a small amount? This will determine whether you need a smaller, more compact bin, or a larger, more spacious one. Secondly, consider the material of the bin. Plastic bins are lightweight and durable, while metal bins are sturdy and can withstand heavy use.

Finally, think about the functionality of the bin. Do you need a bin with a lid to prevent odors and pests, or one with wheels for easy maneuverability? By considering these factors, you can ensure that the bin you choose is the perfect fit for your waste disposal needs.

Setting Up Your Bin

So, you’ve decided to start composting in a bin. That’s great! Setting up your bin properly is essential for successful composting. First, choose a location for your bin that is easily accessible and near your kitchen or garden.

Next, make sure your bin has holes or slots for proper ventilation. This allows oxygen to reach the microorganisms that break down the organic matter. You’ll also want to consider the size of your bin.

It should be large enough to hold your organic waste, but not so big that it becomes difficult to manage. Once you have your bin in place, you can start adding your kitchen scraps, yard waste, and other organic materials. Remember to balance your greens (nitrogen-rich materials like food scraps and grass clippings) with your browns (carbon-rich materials like leaves and paper).

This will help create a good balance of nutrients and promote decomposition. With these simple steps, you’ll be well on your way to successful composting in your bin!

Selecting a location

Selecting a location for your compost bin is an important step in setting up your composting system. When choosing a location, there are a few key factors to consider. First, it’s important to choose an area that is easily accessible and convenient for you.

You’ll want a location that is close to your kitchen or wherever you generate most of your food scraps, as this will make it easier to regularly add them to the compost bin. It’s also important to choose a location that is away from strong odors or sensitive areas, such as windows or your neighbor’s property. This will help to minimize any potential odor issues and ensure that your composting process is not disruptive to others.

Additionally, it’s important to consider the sunlight and drainage in the area where you plan to place your compost bin. Compost needs a good balance of moisture and airflow to break down properly, so choose a location that gets some sunlight and has good drainage to support the composting process. By considering these factors, you can select the perfect location for your compost bin and set yourself up for success in composting.

Preparing the bin

setting up your bin

What to Compost

Composting is a great way to reduce waste and create nutrient-rich soil for your garden. One popular method of composting is using a bin. But how do you know what to put in your compost bin? The good news is that there are plenty of things you can compost.

Some examples include fruit and vegetable scraps, coffee grounds, tea bags, eggshells, leaves, grass clippings, and yard trimmings. These materials are all considered “green” and are rich in nitrogen, which is important for the decomposition process. It’s also important to include “brown” materials, such as dried leaves, straw, and shredded newspaper, which are high in carbon.

This balance of carbon and nitrogen is crucial for successful composting. Additionally, it’s best to avoid adding meat, dairy products, and oily foods to your compost bin, as these can attract pests and slow down the composting process. By following these guidelines, you’ll be well on your way to creating rich, healthy compost for your garden.

So why not give composting in a bin a try? Not only will you be helping the environment, but you’ll also be giving your plants a natural boost of nutrients.

Materials that can be composted

What to Compost Composting is a great way to reduce waste and create nutrient-rich soil for your garden. But what exactly can you compost? The answer is a wide range of materials, both from indoors and outdoors. Let’s start with kitchen scraps.

Fruit and vegetable peels, coffee grounds, tea bags, eggshells, and even bread can all be composted. These items are rich in nitrogen, which is an essential element for the decomposition process. In addition to kitchen scraps, you can also compost yard waste such as grass clippings, leaves, and small branches.

These materials provide carbon, which balances out the nitrogen content in your compost pile. Other items you can compost include shredded paper, cardboard, and even hair! Just make sure to avoid composting meat, dairy products, and oily foods, as these can attract pests and slow down the decomposition process. By composting these materials, you not only reduce waste but also create a valuable resource for your garden.

So, next time you’re in the kitchen, think twice before throwing away those scraps, and start composting instead!

Things to avoid in your compost bin

When it comes to composting, it’s important to know what you should avoid putting in your compost bin. While composting is a great way to reduce waste and create nutrient-rich soil, not everything should be tossed in. One thing to avoid is meat and dairy products.

These items can attract pests and take a long time to break down, resulting in a smelly compost pile. Another thing to steer clear of is oils and greasy foods. These can go rancid and create an unpleasant odor in your compost.

Additionally, avoid adding weeds with seeds or invasive plants to your compost. This could result in your garden being overrun with unwanted plants. Finally, it’s best to avoid adding treated wood, as it may contain harmful chemicals that can leach into your compost.

By avoiding these items, you can ensure a healthy and productive compost pile. So, remember, stick to composting fruit and vegetable scraps, yard waste, and other organic materials, and you’ll be on your way to creating nutrient-rich soil for your garden.

Maintaining Your Compost Bin

So you’ve set up your compost bin and you’re ready to start turning your kitchen scraps and yard waste into nutrient-rich compost. Congratulations! Composting can be a fun and rewarding way to reduce waste and improve your garden’s soil quality. But now that your bin is up and running, how do you maintain it to ensure optimal composting? Here are a few tips to help you keep your compost bin in tip-top shape.

One of the most important things to remember is to maintain the right balance of green and brown materials in your compost bin. Green materials include things like fruit and vegetable scraps, grass clippings, and coffee grounds. These materials are high in nitrogen and help to speed up the composting process.

Brown materials, on the other hand, are things like dry leaves, shredded newspaper, and cardboard. These materials are high in carbon and help to balance out the nitrogen in the green materials. It’s also important to regularly turn and aerate your compost pile.

This helps to mix the materials, adds oxygen to the pile, and speeds up the decomposition process. You can use a pitchfork or a compost turning tool to mix the materials in the bin. Aim to turn the pile at least once a week, or more often if you have the time and energy.

Another key aspect of maintaining your compost bin is keeping it moist. The moisture level in your compost pile should be similar to that of a damp sponge. If the pile becomes too dry, the decomposition process will slow down.

On the other hand, if the pile becomes too wet, it can become anaerobic and start to smell. To keep the moisture level just right, you may need to water the pile occasionally, especially during dry spells. Lastly, be patient and give your compost time to decompose.

Monitoring moisture levels

Monitoring moisture levels is an important aspect of maintaining your compost bin. Too much or too little moisture can affect the decomposition process and lead to unpleasant odors or slow breakdown of organic matter. To ensure the ideal moisture levels, it is recommended to aim for a damp sponge consistency.

You can check the moisture levels by using a moisture meter or by simply squeezing a handful of compost. If water drips out, it is too wet, and if it feels dry and crumbly, it needs more moisture. Adding water or dry materials like leaves or shredded paper can help to adjust the moisture levels accordingly.

Regularly monitoring the moisture levels will help you create nutrient-rich compost for your plants and keep your compost bin in optimal condition.

Turning the compost

Maintaining your compost bin is a crucial step in ensuring that you have high-quality compost to use in your garden. One important aspect of maintaining your compost bin is turning the compost. Turning the compost involves mixing the materials inside the bin to promote decomposition and prevent odors.

It also helps to distribute heat and oxygen evenly throughout the compost pile, which is essential for the breakdown of organic matter. When turning the compost, you should use a pitchfork or a compost aerator tool to gently mix the materials. Be sure to thoroughly turn the materials from the bottom to the top of the pile, making sure that everything is well-mixed.

By turning the compost regularly, you can speed up the decomposition process and ensure that your compost is rich and beneficial for your plants. So don’t forget to give your compost pile a good turn every few weeks, and watch your garden flourish with nutrient-rich soil!

Adding new materials

maintaining compost bin, new materials, composting process, organic waste, nutrient-rich soil, decomposition process, nitrogen-rich materials, carbon-rich materials, brown materials, green materials, balance, turning the compost, moisture level, good airflow, breaking down organic matter, improving fertility, preventing odors, avoiding pests, compostable materials, kitchen scraps, yard waste, maintenance tasks, composting bin, temperature, oxygen, water, decomposition process, weekly maintenance routine, successful composting, composting process, natural fertilizer, gardening enthusiasts, sustainable gardening. Maintaining your compost bin is essential for the success of the composting process. One important aspect of maintenance is adding new materials to the bin.

You want to ensure a good balance of nitrogen-rich and carbon-rich materials, also known as green and brown materials. Green materials include kitchen scraps, grass clippings, and fresh plant trimmings, while brown materials include dried leaves, twigs, and cardboard. By adding these materials in the right proportions, you will provide the necessary ingredients for the decomposition process to occur.

It’s like creating a recipe for a nutrient-rich soil cocktail. To maintain your compost bin, you should regularly turn the compost to provide good airflow and mix the materials. This helps speed up the decomposition process and prevents the formation of clumps or pockets of undecomposed matter.

It’s like stirring a pot of soup to ensure all the ingredients blend together and cook evenly. Another important aspect is maintaining the right moisture level. The compost should be damp but not soggy.

Like a plant, it needs water to survive and thrive. Too much moisture can lead to a smelly and waterlogged compost pile, while too little moisture can slow down the decomposition process. It’s like finding the perfect balance between watering your plants and letting the rain take care of the rest.

Regularly checking the temperature of the compost is also crucial. The decomposition process generates heat, and a healthy compost pile should reach temperatures between 110 and 160 degrees Fahrenheit. This indicates that the microorganisms are breaking down the organic matter effectively.

Troubleshooting Common Issues

If you’re using a compost bin to compost your kitchen and garden waste, you may encounter some common issues that can hinder the decomposition process. One issue you might face is the compost becoming too wet or too dry. If your compost is soaking wet, it can become a breeding ground for pests and it may start to smell.

To remedy this, add dry materials like straw or shredded paper to absorb the excess moisture. On the other hand, if your compost is too dry, it can take a long time to break down. In this case, add some water to moisten the materials and speed up decomposition.

Another common issue is a lack of air flow in the compost bin. Without enough oxygen, the materials can become compacted and decomposition slows down. To fix this, regularly turn or aerate the compost using a pitchfork or a compost aerator to allow for proper airflow.

Lastly, you might notice that your compost is not heating up. The ideal temperature for composting is between 130-150 degrees Fahrenheit. If your compost isn’t getting hot enough, it could be due to a lack of nitrogen-rich materials or an excess of carbon-rich materials.

Adjust the ratio by adding more green materials like fruit and vegetable scraps or grass clippings, and ensure that you are regularly turning the compost to mix the materials properly. Troubleshooting these common issues will help you maintain a healthy compost bin and produce nutrient-rich compost for your garden. So, don’t get discouraged if you encounter any problems along the way – with a few adjustments, you’ll be well on your way to successful composting in no time!

Smelly compost

One common issue that can arise when composting is a smelly compost pile. If you’ve noticed a distinct odor coming from your compost, there are a few possible reasons for this unpleasant smell. One reason could be that the compost pile is too wet.

Excess moisture can lead to anaerobic conditions in the pile, causing the decomposition process to produce foul-smelling compounds. To fix this issue, you can add dry materials such as leaves or straw to help absorb some of the moisture and promote better airflow within the pile. Another potential cause of a smelly compost pile is an imbalance of green and brown materials.

Green materials, such as fresh grass clippings or kitchen scraps, provide nitrogen to the pile, while brown materials, such as dried leaves or shredded cardboard, provide carbon. If there is an excess of one type of material, the decomposition process can become imbalanced, resulting in odors. To remedy this, you can adjust the ratio of green to brown materials by adding more of the lacking component.

Finally, if your compost pile smells like ammonia, it may be an indication that there is too much nitrogen present. This can happen if you are adding a lot of high-nitrogen materials, such as fresh manure or green grass clippings, without enough carbon-rich materials to balance it out. Adding more brown materials can help absorb the excess nitrogen and reduce the smell.

In conclusion, a smelly compost pile can be a common issue, but by addressing the moisture levels, balancing the materials, and adjusting the nitrogen content, you can eliminate the odor and continue composting successfully.

Pests in the compost bin

compost bin, pests, troubleshooting Pests in the compost bin can be a frustrating issue to deal with, but fear not! There are several common issues that can contribute to the presence of pests, and with a little troubleshooting, you can get your compost bin back on track. One common problem is a lack of proper airflow in the bin. If the compost is too moist and compacted, it creates a perfect environment for pests like flies and maggots to thrive.

To solve this issue, make sure to regularly turn and aerate the compost pile to promote airflow. Another culprit may be an imbalance of green and brown materials. Pests are attracted to the smell of decomposing organic matter, so if you have an excessive amount of green materials like kitchen scraps without enough brown materials like leaves or shredded paper, pests may be enticed to visit your bin.

To fix this, add more brown materials to balance out the compost mix. Lastly, if you notice pests like rats or raccoons in your compost bin, it may be a sign that you are adding animal products or oily foods to the pile. These items can attract larger pests, so it’s best to avoid composting them or use a compost bin with a secure lid.

By addressing these common issues and troubleshooting your compost bin, you can keep pests at bay and enjoy the benefits of healthy, nutrient-rich compost.

Using Finished Compost

So you’ve been diligently composting in a bin, and now you have a bin full of finished compost. But what do you do with it? Well, there are many ways to use finished compost, and the possibilities are endless. One simple way to use it is to spread it on your garden beds.

This rich, dark, and crumbly compost will add nutrients to the soil and improve its structure, making it more fertile and better able to hold moisture. You can also use finished compost to make compost tea, a nutrient-rich liquid that can be sprayed on your plants to give them a boost. Additionally, you can mix finished compost with potting soil to create a nutritious growing medium for your indoor plants.

So go ahead and start using that finished compost – your plants will thank you!

When compost is ready

Using finished compost is a rewarding experience that brings numerous benefits to your garden. When your compost is ready, it should have a dark, crumbly texture and a pleasant earthy smell. This signifies that the organic matter has broken down into humus, which is rich in nutrients and beneficial microorganisms.

You can incorporate finished compost into your soil by mixing it in before planting or applying it as a top dressing around existing plants. This will improve the soil structure, enhance water retention, and provide a slow release of nutrients to support plant growth. Additionally, finished compost can be used as a mulch to suppress weeds, regulate soil temperature, and reduce evaporation.

By using finished compost, you are closing the loop of the natural waste cycle, nourishing your plants, and promoting a healthy and sustainable garden.

Ways to use finished compost

Using finished compost is a great way to enhance your garden and nourish your plants. Compost is a nutrient-rich material that is produced from decomposed organic matter, such as food scraps, leaves, and yard waste. It is often referred to as “black gold” because of its high value in gardening.

There are several ways you can use finished compost in your garden or yard. Firstly, you can use it as a soil amendment by mixing it into your existing soil. This will improve the soil structure, fertility, and drainage.

Secondly, you can use it as a mulch by spreading a layer of compost around your plants to help retain moisture, suppress weeds, and regulate soil temperature. Additionally, you can make compost tea by steeping compost in water and using the resulting liquid as a natural fertilizer for your plants. Finally, you can use compost to make your own potting mix by mixing it with other ingredients like perlite or vermiculite.

This homemade potting mix will provide your plants with the necessary nutrients for healthy growth. Overall, using finished compost is a sustainable and eco-friendly way to improve the health and productivity of your garden.


In conclusion, composting in a bin is like conducting a symphony of nature’s greatest hits. It’s a harmonious blend of discarded fruit and veggie scraps, yard waste, and a dash of earthy magic. As the conductor of this eco-friendly orchestra, you wield the baton of decomposition, transforming everyday materials into nutrient-rich soil like a maestro turning notes into a symphony.

So, embrace your inner compost virtuoso, and let the bin be your stage. And remember, reducing waste while creating something beautiful is truly music to Mother Earth’s ears!”

Summary of key points

Finished compost is a valuable resource that can be used in a variety of ways to benefit your garden or landscape. One way to use finished compost is as a soil amendment. Adding compost to your soil can improve its structure, water-holding capacity, and nutrient content.

It also helps to create a healthy environment for beneficial soil organisms, such as earthworms, which can further improve soil fertility. Another way to use finished compost is as a mulch. Applying a layer of compost around plants helps to conserve moisture, suppress weeds, and regulate soil temperature.

Compost can also be used as a topdressing for lawns, providing nutrients to the grass and improving overall soil health. In addition to these practical uses, using finished compost is a sustainable and eco-friendly alternative to synthetic fertilizers and chemical pesticides. By recycling organic waste and returning it to the soil, composting helps to reduce landfill waste and promote a more natural and balanced ecosystem.

So next time you have finished compost ready to use, don’t hesitate to put it to good use in your garden or landscape. You’ll be rewarded with healthier plants, improved soil quality, and a more sustainable approach to gardening.

Encouragement to start composting

One of the amazing benefits of starting composting is the ability to use the finished compost in your garden. It’s like having your own secret weapon for growing healthy, nutrient-rich plants. When you use finished compost, you are not only improving the fertility of your soil, but you are also reducing the need for chemical fertilizers.

This means that you can have a bountiful garden while also being kind to the environment. Plus, using finished compost adds organic matter to your soil, which helps improve its structure, drainage, and water-holding capacity. It’s a win-win situation for both you and your plants.

So, if you haven’t started composting yet, grab a compost bin and get started today! Your garden will thank you for it.


What is composting?
Composting is the process of decomposing organic waste, such as food scraps and yard trimmings, into nutrient-rich soil conditioner.

Why should I compost in a bin?
Composting in a bin helps contain the organic waste and allows for better control of the composting process. It also helps to minimize odors and pests.

What kind of bin should I use for composting?
There are various types of compost bins available, including plastic bins, wooden bins, and even DIY options. The choice of bin depends on factors like space, budget, and personal preference.

How do I start composting in a bin?
To start composting in a bin, begin by placing a layer of brown materials (such as dry leaves or shredded paper) at the bottom. Then add a layer of green materials (such as kitchen scraps or grass clippings) on top. Repeat these layers as you accumulate organic waste, making sure to maintain a good balance of browns and greens.

How often should I turn my compost bin?
Turning the compost helps to aerate it and accelerate the decomposition process. Generally, it is recommended to turn the compost bin every 1-2 weeks for faster decomposition.

Can I compost meat or dairy products in a bin?
It is best to avoid composting meat, dairy products, and oily foods in a bin, as they can attract pests and create unpleasant odors. Stick to composting plant-based materials for best results.

How long does it take for compost to be ready in a bin?
The time it takes for compost to be ready in a bin can vary depending on factors such as temperature, moisture, and the materials used. On average, it can take anywhere from a few months to a year for compost to be fully decomposed and ready to use in your garden.

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